The basic ingredients of beer are water; a fermentable (convertible into alcohol) starch source, such as malted barley, a brewer’s yeast to produce the fermentation; and a flavouring, such as hops.
Stage 1 Hadrian Border brewers mix milled grain and hot water in a large vessel known as a mash tun to create a cereal mash. During the mash, naturally occurring enzymes present in the malt convert the starches in the grain into smaller or simple sugars. The result of the mashing process is a sugar rich liquid or "sweet wort" (pronounced wert).
Stage 2 The wort is moved into a large tank known as a "copper" or kettle where it is boiled with hops which add flavour, aroma and bitterness to the beer.
Stage 3 The now bitter wort is transferred rapidly from the copper or brew kettle to the heat exchanger which consists of tubing in a jacket of cold water. It is important to cool the wort quickly to a level where yeast can be added as yeast is unable to grow in high temperatures.
Stage 4 The cooled wort now goes into a fermentation vessel. Yeast is selected and added, or "pitched", to the fermentation tank. The fermenting process begins, where the sugars turn into alcohol, carbon dioxide and other components.
Stage 5 This is when Hadrian Border brewers rack the 'green beer' into a new vessel, called a conditioning tank. Conditioning of the beer is the process in which the beer ages, the flavour becomes smoother, and flavours that are unwanted dissipate.
Stage 6 When Hadrian Border brewers are satisfied that the beer is in tip top condition, it is racked off onto clean casks or sent for bottling.